Integrated manufacturing of REciclable multi-material COmposites for the TRANSport sector
The impacts of charge transfer, localization, and metallicity on hydrogen retention and transport capacity
Solid state hydrides such as early transition metal hydrides are of inestimable importance for the future of hydrogen energy and are actively being investigated for energy conversion and storage applications such as fuel cells, solid-state batteries and neutron moderators. The retention and transport behavior of hydrogen in these hydrides has a huge role on the extended performance of components. While early transition-metal-based compounds exhibit many peculiar properties due to their unique correlated electronic signatures arising from d-orbital electrons, the fundamental chemistry and transport behavior of hydrogen in such hydrides is not well understood. In the present work, using density functional theory, a highly intricate bonding feature is revealed through the theoretical investigation of the electronic structure of early transition metal hydrides YH2 and ZrH2. In particular, a pronounced charge transfer from the transition element to H, results in localized electron densities at deep energy levels. The interplay between intrinsic charge transfer, charge localization, and metallicity in YH2 and ZrH2 leads to strong chemical bonding between metal and hydrogen atoms and large energy barriers for the migration of hydrogen vacancies. Specifically, hydrogen vacancies are found to be stable in the neutral state due to electron screening effects, accompanied by substantially high migration barriers between 0.8–1.2 eV along different crystallographic directions. In contrast, recent literature shows the migration barrier for charged H vacancies in insulating s-block metal hydrides lie between 0.1–0.4 eV, which is suitable for fast conduction applications. This pivotal electron structure difference exploited between early transition metal hydrides and alkali/alkaline earth metal hydrides determines extended hydrogen retention in these early transition metal hydrides. This work explains fundamental differences between the electronic structure of s-block and d-block metal hydrides, and its impact on the mobility of hydrogen vacancies.