Integrated manufacturing of REciclable multi-material COmposites for the TRANSport sector
Role of heavy metals (copper (Cu), arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), iron (Fe) and lithium (Li)) induced neurotoxicity
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative condition characterized by the dopamine (DA) neuronal loss in the substantia nigra. PD impairs motor controls symptoms such as tremor, rigidity, bradykinesia and postural imbalance gradually along with non-motor problems such as olfactory dysfunction, constipation, sleeping disorder. Though surplus of factors and mechanisms have been recognized, the precise PD etiopathogenesis is not yet implied. Reports suggest that various environmental factors play a crucial role in the causality of the PD cases. Epidemiological studies have reported that heavy metals has a role in causing defects in substantia nigra region of brain in PD. Though the reason is unknown, exposure to heavy metals is reported to be an underlying factor in PD development. Metals are classified as either essential or non-essential, and they have a role in physiological processes such protein modification, electron transport, oxygen transport, redox reactions, and cell adhesion. Excessive metal levels cause oxidative stress, protein misfolding, mitochondrial malfunction, autophagy dysregulation, and apoptosis, among other things. In this review, we check out the link between heavy metals like copper (Cu), arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), iron (Fe), and lithium (Li) in neurodegeneration, and how it impacts the pathological conditions of PD. In conclusion, increase or decrease in heavy metals involve in regulation of neuronal functions that have an impact on neurodegeneration process. Through this review, we suggest that more research is needed in this stream to bring more novel approaches for either disease modelling or therapeutics.